Tuesday, August 19, 2008

613

A couple of times in his recent comments, Marcus mentioned that there were 613 laws in 'the Law'. So I did a websearch for '613' and turned up this page which lists them and (handily) categorises them. I've listed them below (summarised slightly from the original list and with some of the Jewish phrases expressed in English) and colour coded them according to my perception of whether contemporary Christians consider them binding or not.

This is a long post. Sorry, but its a long list. Also, some of the colour coding is a bit arbitrary, but I've used it to get the overall impression, not to get too hung up on the detail.
  • Laws listed in red are ones which I think most Christians would probably consider to still be binding today.
  • Laws listed in orange are ones which many consider to be binding, but others would dispute this.
  • Laws listed in green are ones which I think most Christians would probably consider as not being binding today.
  • Laws listed in blue are ones which I think some Christians might do anyway, but not consider as a matter of law.
  • Laws listed in purple are civic laws, where Christians would probably defer to the equivalent in the laws of the country in which they live, rather than sticking to the Biblical laws.
(Marcus, I hope you can distinguish between these colours!)

I'll try not to pass much comment on the laws here, but may do so in future posts.

In summary, however, I would say that approximately:
  • 69% of the law would be dismissed as not applicable anymore
  • 13%% of the law might be followed, but not as a matter of law
  • 9.5% of the law would be dismissed by deferring to local laws
  • Only 7% of the law would be considered as still binding today (half of which laws relate to sex, mostly to incest)
  • Only 1.5% of the law would be disputed by different groups of Christians (that's only 9 laws, one of which I'm breaking here by questioning 'the law')
So here goes:

God

1. To know that God exists (Ex. 20:2; Deut. 5:6)
2. Not to entertain the idea that there is any god but the Eternal (Ex. 20:3)

3. Not to blaspheme (Ex. 22:28), the penalty for which is death (Lev. 24:16)

4. To hallow God's name (Lev. 22:32)
5. Not to profane God's name (Lev. 22:32)
6. To know that God is One, a complete Unity (Deut. 6:4)
7. To love God (Deut. 6:5)
8. To fear Him reverently (Deut. 6:13; 10:20)
9. Not to put the word of God to the test (Deut. 6:16)
10. To imitate His good and upright ways (Deut. 28:9)

Torah

11. To honor the old and the wise (Lev. 19:32)
12. To learn Torah and to teach it (Deut. 6:7)

13. To cleave to those who know Him (Deut. 10:20)

14. Not to add to the commandments of the Torah, whether in the Written Law or in its interpretation received by tradition (Deut. 13:1)
15. Not to take away from the commandments of the Torah (Deut. 13:1)
16. That every person shall write a scroll of the Torah for himself (Deut. 31:19)

Signs and Symbols

17. To circumcise the male offspring (Gen. 17:12; Lev. 12:3)
18. To put tzitzit on the corners of clothing (Num. 15:38)

19. To bind tefillin on the head (Deut. 6:8)

20. To bind tefillin on the arm (Deut. 6:8)

21. To affix the mezuzah to the doorposts and gates of your house (Deut. 6:9)


Prayer and Blessings

22. To pray to God (Ex. 23:25; Deut. 6:13)
23. To read the Shema in the morning and at night (Deut. 6:7)
24. To recite grace after meals (Deut. 8:10) [in my experience, most Christians - if they do this - do it before the meal...]
25. Not to lay down a stone for worship (Lev. 26:1)

Love and Brotherhood

26. To love all human beings who are of the covenant (Lev. 19:18)
27. Not to stand by idly when a human life is in danger (Lev. 19:16)
28. Not to wrong any one in speech (Lev. 25:17)

29. Not to carry tales (Lev. 19:16)

30. Not to cherish hatred in one's heart (Lev. 19:17)

31. Not to take revenge (Lev. 19:18)

32. Not to bear a grudge (Lev. 19:18)

33. Not to put any Jew to shame (Lev. 19:17)

34. Not to curse any other Israelite (Lev. 19:14)
[of course, as this says 'other' this law is only applicable to Israelites]
35. Not to give occasion to the simple-minded to stumble on the road (Lev. 19:14)

36. To rebuke the sinner (Lev. 19:17)
37. To relieve a neighbor of his burden and help to unload his beast (Ex. 23:5)
38. To assist in replacing the load upon a neighbor's beast (Deut. 22:4)

39. Not to leave a beast, that has fallen down beneath its burden, unaided (Deut. 22:4)


The Poor and Unfortunate

40. Not to afflict an orphan or a widow (Ex. 22:21)
41. Not to reap the entire field (Lev. 19:9; Lev. 23:22)
42. To leave the unreaped corner of the field or orchard for the poor (Lev. 19:9)

43. Not to gather gleanings (the ears that have fallen to the ground while reaping) (Lev. 19:9)

44. To leave the gleanings for the poor (Lev. 19:9)

45. Not to gather ol'loth (the imperfect clusters) of the vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

46. To leave ol'loth (the imperfect clusters) of the vineyard for the poor (Lev. 19:10; Deut. 24:21)

47. Not to gather the peret (grapes) that have fallen to the ground (Lev. 19:10)
48. To leave peret (the single grapes) of the vineyard for the poor (Lev. 19:10)

49. Not to return to take a forgotten sheaf (Deut. 24:19) This applies to all fruit trees (Deut. 24:20)

50. To leave the forgotten sheaves for the poor (Deut. 24:19-20)

51. Not to refrain from maintaining a poor man and giving him what he needs (Deut. 15:7)
52. To give charity according to one's means (Deut. 15:11)


Treatment of Gentiles

53. To love the stranger (Deut. 10:19)
54. Not to wrong the stranger in speech (Ex. 22:20)

55. Not to wrong the stranger in buying or selling (Ex. 22:20)

56. Not to intermarry with gentiles (Deut. 7:3)
57. To exact the debt of an alien (Deut. 15:3)

58. To lend to an alien at interest (Deut. 23:21)


Marriage, Divorce and Family

59. To honor father and mother (Ex. 20:12)
60. Not to smite a father or a mother (Ex. 21:15)

61. Not to curse a father or mother (Ex. 21:17)

62. To reverently fear father and mother (Lev. 19:3)
63. To be fruitful and multiply (Gen. 1:28)

64. That a eunuch shall not marry a daughter of Israel (Deut. 23:2)
65. That a mamzer shall not marry the daughter of a Jew (Deut. 23:3)

66. That an Ammonite or Moabite shall never marry the daughter of an Israelite (Deut. 23:4)

67. Not to exclude a descendant of Esau from the community of Israel for three generations (Deut. 23:8-9)

68. Not to exclude an Egyptian from the community of Israel for three generations (Deut. 23:8-9)

69. That there shall be no harlot (in Israel); that is, that there shall be no intercourse with a woman, without previous marriage with a deed of marriage and formal declaration of marriage (Deut. 23:18)

70. To take a wife by kiddushin, the sacrament of marriage (Deut. 24:1) [well, it is generally held that marriage is important]
71. That the newly married husband shall (be free) for one year to rejoice with his wife (Deut. 24:5)
72. That a bridegroom shall be exempt for a whole year from taking part in any public labor, such as military service, guarding the wall and similar duties (Deut. 24:5)

73. Not to withhold food, clothing or conjugal rights from a wife (Ex. 21:10)
74. That the woman suspected of adultery shall be dealt with as prescribed in the Torah (Num. 5:30)
75. That one who defames his wife's honor (by falsely accusing her of unchastity before marriage) must live with her all his lifetime (Deut. 22:19)

76. That a man may not divorce his wife concerning whom he has published an evil report (about her unchastity before marriage) (Deut. 22:19)

77. To divorce by a formal written document (Deut. 24:1)
78. That one who divorced his wife shall not remarry her, if after the divorce she had been married to another man (Deut. 24:4)
79. That a widow whose husband died childless must not be married to anyone but her deceased
husband's brother (Deut. 25:5)
80. To marry the widow of a brother who has died childless (Deut. 25:5)

81. That the widow formally release the brother-in-law (if he refuses to marry her) (Deut.
25:7-9)

Forbidden Sexual Relations

82. Not to indulge in familiarities with relatives, such as kissing, embracing, winking, skipping, which may lead to incest (Lev. 18:6)
83. Not to commit incest with one's mother (Lev. 18:7)

84. Not to commit sodomy with one's father (Lev. 18:7)

85. Not to commit incest with one's father's wife (Lev. 18:8)

86. Not to commit incest with one's sister (Lev. 18:9)

87. Not to commit incest with one's father's wife's daughter (Lev. 18:11) [that's a step-sister, right?]
88. Not to commit incest with one's son's daughter (Lev. 18:10)
89. Not to commit incest with one's daughter's daughter (Lev. 18:10)

90. Not to commit incest with one's daughter (this is not explicitly in the Torah but is inferred from other explicit commands that would include it)

91. Not to commit incest with one's fathers sister (Lev. 18:12)
92. Not to commit incest with one's mother's sister (Lev. 18:13)

93. Not to commit incest with one's father's brothers wife (Lev. 18:14)

94. Not to commit sodomy with one's father's brother (Lev. 18:14)
95. Not to commit incest with one's son's wife (Lev. 18:15)

96. Not to commit incest with one's brother's wife (Lev. 18:16)

97. Not to commit incest with one's wife's daughter (Lev. 18:17)

98. Not to commit incest with the daughter of one's wife's son (Lev. 18:17)

99. Not to commit incest with the daughter of one's wife's daughter (Lev. 18:17)

100. Not to commit incest with one's wife's sister (Lev. 18:18)
101. Not to have intercourse with a woman, in her menstrual period (Lev. 18:19)
102. Not to have intercourse with another man's wife (Lev. 18:20)
103. Not to commit sodomy with a male (Lev. 18:22)
104. Not to have intercourse with a beast (Lev. 18:23)
105. That a woman shall not have intercourse with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

106. Not to castrate the male of any species; neither a man, nor a domestic or wild beast, nor a fowl (Lev. 22:24)

Times and Seasons

107. That the new month shall be solemnly proclaimed as holy, and the months and years shall be calculated by the Supreme Court only (Ex. 12:2)
108. Not to travel on Sabbath outside the limits of one's place of residence (Ex. 16:29)

109. To sanctify Sabbath (Ex. 20:8)
110. Not to do work on Sabbath (Ex. 20:10)

111. To rest on Sabbath (Ex. 23:12; 34:21)

112. To celebrate the festivals [Passover, the Festival of Weeks and the Feast of Tabernacles] (Ex. 23:14)
113. To rejoice on the festivals (Deut. 16:14)

114. To appear in the Sanctuary on the festivals (Deut. 16:16)

115. To remove [specified bread products] on the Eve of Passover (Ex. 12:15)

116. To rest on the first day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:7)

117. Not to do work on the first day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:6-7)

118. To rest on the seventh day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:8)

119. Not to do work on the seventh day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:8)

120. To eat [specified flatbread] on the first night of Passover (Ex. 12:18)

121. That no [specified bread products] be in the Israelite's possession during Passover (Ex. 12:19)
122. Not to eat any food containing [specified bread products] on Passover (Ex. 12:20)

123. Not to eat [specified bread products] on Passover (Ex. 13:3)

124. That [specified bread products] shall not be seen in an Israelite's home during Passover (Ex. 13:7)

125. To discuss the departure from Egypt on the first night of Passover (Ex. 13:8)

126. Not to eat [specified bread products] after mid-day on the fourteenth of Nissan (Deut. 16:3)

127. To count forty-nine days from the time of the cutting of the Omer (first sheaves of the barley harvest) (Lev. 23:15)
128. To rest on the Festival of Weeks (Lev. 23:21)

129. Not to do work on the the Festival of Weeks (Lev. 23:21)

130. To rest on the Jewish New Year (Lev. 23:24)

131. Not to do work on the Jewish New Year (Lev. 23:25)

132. To hear the sound of the [ram's horn instrument] on the Jewish New Year (Num. 29:1)

133. To fast on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 23:27)

134. Not to eat or drink on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 23:29)
135. Not to do work on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 23:31)

136. To rest on the the Day of Atonement (Lev. 23:32)

137. To rest on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:35) .

138. Not to do work on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:35)

139. To rest on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Shemini Atzeret) (Lev. 23:36)

140. Not to do work on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Shemini Atzeret) (Lev. 23:36)

141. To take during the Feast of Tabernacles a palm branch and the other three plants (Lev. 23:40)

142. To dwell in booths seven days during the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:42)


Dietary Laws

143. To examine the marks in cattle (so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean) (Lev. 11:2)
144. Not to eat the flesh of unclean beasts (Lev. 11:4)

145. To examine the marks in fishes (so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Lev. 11:9)

146. Not to eat unclean fish (Lev. 11:11)

147. To examine the marks in fowl, so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Deut. 14:11)

148. Not to eat unclean fowl (Lev. 11:13)

149. To examine the marks in locusts, so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Lev. 11:21)

150. Not to eat a worm found in fruit (Lev. 11:41)
151. Not to eat of things that creep upon the earth (Lev. 11:41-42)
152. Not to eat any vermin of the earth (Lev. 11:44)

153. Not to eat things that swarm in the water (Lev. 11:43 and 46)

154. Not to eat of winged insects (Deut. 14:19)

155. Not to eat the flesh of a beast that is terefah (lit torn) (Ex. 22:30)

156. Not to eat the flesh of a beast that died of itself (Deut. 14:21)

157. To slay cattle, deer and fowl according to the laws of shechitah if their flesh is to be eaten (Deut. 12:21) ("as I have commanded" in this verse refers to the technique)
158. Not to eat a limb removed from a living beast (Deut. 12:23)

159. Not to slaughter an animal and its young on the same day (Lev. 22:28)

160. Not to take the mother-bird with the young (Deut. 22:6)

161. To set the mother-bird free when taking the nest (Deut. 22:6-7)

162. Not to eat the flesh of an ox that was condemned to be stoned (Ex. 21:28)

163. Not to boil meat with milk (Ex. 23:19)
164. Not to eat flesh with milk (Ex. 34:26)

165. Not to eat the of the thigh-vein which shrank (Gen. 32:33)

166. Not to eat chelev (tallow-fat) (Lev. 7:23)

167. Not to eat blood (Lev. 7:26)

168. To cover the blood of undomesticated animals (deer, etc.) and of fowl that have been killed (Lev. 17:13)
169. Not to eat or drink like a glutton or a drunkard (not to rebel against father or mother) (Lev. 19:26; Deut. 21:20)

Business Practices

170. Not to do wrong in buying or selling (Lev. 25:14)
171. Not to make a loan to an Israelite on interest (Lev. 25:37)
172. Not to borrow on interest (Deut. 23:20)

173. Not to take part in any usurious transaction between borrower and lender, neither as a surety, nor as a witness, nor as a writer of the bond for them (Ex. 22:24)
174. To lend to a poor person (Ex. 22:24) [this is a legal requirement!]
175. Not to demand from a poor man repayment of his debt, when the creditor knows that he cannot pay, nor press him (Ex. 22:24)
176. Not to take in pledge utensils used in preparing food (Deut. 24:6)
177. Not to exact a pledge from a debtor by force (Deut. 24:10)

178. Not to keep the pledge from its owner at the time when he needs it (Deut. 24:12)

179. To return a pledge to its owner (Deut. 24:13)

180. Not to take a pledge from a widow (Deut. 24:17)

181. Not to commit fraud in measuring (Lev. 19:35)
182. To ensure that scales and weights are correct (Lev. 19:36)

183. Not to possess inaccurate measures and weights (Deut. 25:13-14)


Employees, Servants and Slaves

184. Not to delay payment of a hired man's wages (Lev. 19:13)
185. That the hired laborer shall be permitted to eat of the produce he is reaping (Deut. 23:25-26)
186. That the hired laborer shall not take more than he can eat (Deut. 23:25)

187. That a hired laborer shall not eat produce that is not being harvested (Deut. 23:26)

188. To pay wages to the hired man at the due time (Deut. 24:15)

189. To deal judicially with the Hebrew bondman in accordance with the laws appertaining to him (Ex. 21:2-6)

190. Not to compel the Hebrew servant to do the work of a slave (Lev. 25:39)

191. Not to sell a Hebrew servant as a slave (Lev. 25:42)

192. Not to treat a Hebrew servant rigorously (Lev. 25:43)

193. Not to permit a gentile to treat harshly a Hebrew bondman sold to him (Lev. 25:53)

194. Not to send away a Hebrew bondman servant empty handed, when he is freed from service (Deut. 15:13)
195. To bestow liberal gifts upon the Hebrew bondsman (at the end of his term of service), and the same should be done to a Hebrew bondwoman (Deut. 15:14)

196. To redeem a Hebrew maid-servant (Ex. 21:8)

197. Not to sell a Hebrew maid-servant to another person (Ex. 21:8)

198. To espouse a Hebrew maid-servant (Ex. 21:8-9)

199. To keep the Canaanite slave forever (Lev. 25:46)
200. Not to surrender a slave, who has fled to the land of Israel, to his owner who lives outside Palestine (Deut. 23:16)

201. Not to wrong such a slave (Deut. 23:17)

202. Not to muzzle a beast, while it is working in produce which it can eat and enjoy (Deut. 25:4)


Vows, Oaths and Swearing

203. That a man should fulfill whatever he has uttered (Deut. 23:24)
204. Not to swear needlessly (Ex. 20:7)
205. Not to violate an oath or swear falsely (Lev. 19:12)

206. To decide in cases of annulment of vows, according to the rules set forth in the Torah (Num. 30:2-17)
207. Not to break a vow (Num. 30:3)
208. To swear by His name truly (Deut. 10:20)
209. Not to delay in fulfilling vows or bringing vowed or free-will offerings (Deut. 23:22)


The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years

210. To let the land lie fallow in the Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:11; Lev. 25:2)
211. To cease from tilling the land in the Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:11) (Lev. 25:2)

212. Not to till the ground in the Sabbatical year (Lev. 25:4)

213. Not to do any work on the trees in the Sabbatical year (Lev. 25:4)

214. Not to reap the aftermath that grows in the Sabbatical year, in the same way as it is reaped in other years (Lev. 25:5)

215. Not to gather the fruit of the tree in the Sabbatical year in the same way as it is gathered in other years (Lev. 25:5)

216. To sound the Ram's horn in the Sabbatical year (Lev. 25:9)

217. To release debts in the seventh year (Deut. 15:2)
218. Not to demand return of a loan after the Sabbatical year has passed (Deut. 15:2)

219. Not to refrain from making a loan to a poor man, because of the release of loans in the Sabbatical year (Deut. 15:9)

220. To assemble the people to hear the Torah at the close of the seventh year (Deut. 31:12)

221. To count the years of the Jubilee by years and by cycles of seven years (Lev. 25:8)

222. To keep the Jubilee year holy by resting and letting the land lie fallow (Lev. 25:10)

223. Not to cultivate the soil nor do any work on the trees, in the Jubilee Year (Lev. 25:11)

224. Not to reap the aftermath of the field that grew of itself in the Jubilee Year, in the same way as in other years (Lev. 25:11)
225. Not to gather the fruit of the tree in the Jubilee Year, in the same way as in other years (Lev. 25:11)

226. To grant redemption to the land in the Jubilee year (Lev. 25:24)


The Court and Judicial Procedure

227. To appoint judges and officers in every community of Israel (Deut. 16:18)
228. Not to appoint as a judge, a person who is not well versed in the laws of the Torah, even if he is expert in other branches of knowledge (Deut. 1:17)

229. To adjudicate cases of purchase and sale (Lev. 25:14)
230. To judge cases of liability of a paid depositary (Ex. 22:9)

231. To adjudicate cases of loss for which a gratuitous borrower is liable (Ex. 22:13-14)

232. To adjudicate cases of inheritances (Num. 27:8-11)

233. To judge cases of damage caused by an uncovered pit (Ex. 21:33-34)

234. To judge cases of injuries caused by beasts (Ex. 21:35-36)
235. To adjudicate cases of damage caused by trespass of cattle (Ex. 22:4)

236. To adjudicate cases of damage caused by fire (Ex. 22:5)

237. To adjudicate cases of damage caused by a gratuitous depositary (Ex. 22:6-7)

238. To adjudicate other cases between a plaintiff and a defendant (Ex. 22:8)

239. Not to curse a judge (Ex. 22:27)

240. That one who possesses evidence shall testify in Court (Lev. 5:1)

241. Not to testify falsely (Ex. 20:13)
242. That a witness, who has testified in a capital case, shall not lay down the law in that particular case (Num. 35:30)

243. That a transgressor shall not testify (Ex. 23:1)

244. That the court shall not accept the testimony of a close relative of the defendant in matters of capital punishment (Deut. 24:16)
245. Not to hear one of the parties to a suit in the absence of the other party (Ex. 23:1)

246. To examine witnesses thoroughly (Deut. 13:15)

247. Not to decide a case on the evidence of a single witness (Deut. 19:15)

248. To give the decision according to the majority, when there is a difference of opinion among the members of the Sanhedrin as to matters of law (Ex. 23:2)

249. Not to decide, in capital cases, according to the view of the majority, when those who are for condemnation exceed by one only, those who are for acquittal (Ex. 23:2)
250. That, in capital cases, one who had argued for acquittal, shall not later on argue for condemnation (Ex. 23:2)

251. To treat parties in a litigation with equal impartiality (Lev. 19:15)

252. Not to render iniquitous decisions (Lev. 19:15)

253. Not to favor a great man when trying a case (Lev. 19:15)

254. Not to take a bribe (Ex. 23:8)

255. Not to be afraid of a bad man, when trying a case (Deut. 1:17)

256. Not to be moved in trying a case, by the poverty of one of the parties (Ex. 23:3; Lev. 19:15)

257. Not to pervert the judgment of strangers or orphans (Deut. 24:17)

258. Not to pervert the judgment of a sinner (a person poor in fulfillment of commandments) (Ex. 23:6)

259. Not to render a decision on one's personal opinion, but only on the evidence of two witnesses, who saw what actually occurred (Ex. 23:7)

260. Not to execute one guilty of a capital offense, before he has stood his trial (Num. 35:12)

261. To accept the rulings of every Supreme Court in Israel (Deut. 17:11)

262. Not to rebel against the orders of the Court (Deut. 17:11)


Injuries and Damages

263. To make a parapet for your roof (Deut. 22:8)
264. Not to leave something that might cause hurt (Deut. 22:8)
265. To save the pursued even at the cost of the life of the pursuer (Deut. 25:12)
266. Not to spare a pursuer, but he is to be slain before he reaches the pursued and slays the latter, or uncovers his nakedness (Deut. 25:12)


Property and Property Rights

267. Not to sell a field in the land of Israel in perpetuity (Lev. 25:23)
268. Not to change the character of the open land (about the cities of) the Levites or of their fields; not to sell it in perpetuity, but it may be redeemed at any time (Lev. 25:34)

269. That houses sold within a walled city may be redeemed within a year (Lev. 25:29)

270. Not to remove landmarks (property boundaries) (Deut. 19:14)
271. Not to swear falsely in denial of another's property rights (Lev. 19:11)

272. Not to deny falsely another's property rights (Lev. 19:11)

273. Never to settle in the land of Egypt (Deut. 17:16)

274. Not to steal personal property (Lev. 19:11)
275. To restore that which one took by robbery (Lev. 5:23)

276. To return lost property (Deut. 22:1)
277. Not to pretend not to have seen lost property, to avoid the obligation to return it (Deut. 22:3)


Criminal Laws

278. Not to slay an innocent person (Ex. 20:13)
279. Not to kidnap any person of Israel (Ex. 20:13)

280. Not to rob by violence (Lev. 19:13)

281. Not to defraud (Lev. 19:13)

282. Not to covet what belongs to another (Ex. 20:14)
283. Not to crave something that belongs to another (Deut. 5:18)

284. Not to indulge in evil thoughts and sights (Num. 15:39)


Punishment and Restitution

285. That the Court shall pass sentence of death by decapitation with the sword (Ex. 21:20; Lev. 26:25)
286. That the Court shall pass sentence of death by strangulation (Lev. 20:10)

287. That the Court shall pass sentence of death by burning with fire (Lev. 20:14)

288. That the Court shall pass sentence of death by stoning (Deut. 22:24)

289. To hang the dead body of one who has incurred that penalty (Deut. 21:22)

290. That the dead body of an executed criminal shall not remain hanging on the tree over night (Deut. 21:23)

291. To inter the executed on the day of execution (Deut. 21:23)

292. Not to accept ransom from a murderer (Num. 35:31)

293. To exile one who committed accidental homicide (Num. 35:25)

294. To establish six cities of refuge (for those who committed accidental homicide) (Deut. 19:3)

295. Not to accept ransom from an accidental homicide, so as to relieve him from exile (Num. 35:32)

296. To decapitate the heifer in the manner prescribed (in expiation of a murder on the road, the perpetrator of which remained undiscovered) (Deut. 21:4)

297. Not to plow nor sow the rough valley (in which a heifer's neck was broken) (Deut. 21:4)

298. To adjudge a thief to pay compensation or (in certain cases) suffer death (Ex. 21:16; Ex. 21:37; Ex. 22:1)

299. That he who inflicts a bodily injury shall pay monetary compensation (Ex. 21:18-19)

300. To impose a penalty of fifty shekels upon the seducer (of an unbetrothed virgin) and enforce the other rules in connection with the case (Ex. 22:15-16)

301. That the violator (of an unbetrothed virgin) shall marry her (Deut. 22:28-29)

302. That one who has raped a damsel and has then (in accordance with the law) married her, may not divorce her (Deut. 22:29)

303. Not to inflict punishment on Sabbath (Ex. 35:3)

304. To punish the wicked by the infliction of stripes (Deut. 25:2)

305. Not to exceed the statutory number of stripes laid on one who has incurred that punishment (Deut. 25:3)

306. Not to spare the offender, in imposing the prescribed penalties on one who has caused damage (Deut. 19:13)

307. To do unto false witnesses as they had purposed to do (to the accused) (Deut. 19:19)

308. Not to punish any one who has committed an offense under duress (Deut. 22:26)


Prophecy

309. To heed the call of every prophet in each generation, provided that he neither adds to, nor takes away from the Torah (Deut. 18:15)
310. Not to prophesy falsely (Deut. 18:20)
311. Not to refrain from putting a false prophet to death nor to be in fear of him (Deut. 18:22)

Idolatry, Idolaters and Idolatrous Practices

312. Not to make a graven image; neither to make it oneself nor to have it made by others (Ex. 20:4)
313. Not to make any figures for ornament, even if they are not worshipped (Ex. 20:20)

314. Not to make idols even for others (Ex. 34:17; Lev. 19:4)

315. Not to use the ornament of any object of idolatrous worship (Deut. 7:25)

316. Not to make use of an idol or its accessory objects, offerings, or libations (Deut. 7:26)

317. Not to drink wine of idolaters (Deut. 32:38)

318. Not to worship an idol in the way in which it is usually worshipped (Ex. 20:5)
319. Not to bow down to an idol, even if that is not its mode of worship (Ex. 20:5)

320. Not to prophesy in the name of an idol (Ex. 23:13; Deut. 18:20)

321. Not to hearken to one who prophesies in the name of an idol (Deut. 13:4)
322. Not to lead the children of Israel astray to idolatry (Ex. 23:13)

323. Not to entice an Israelite to idolatry (Deut. 13:12)

324. To destroy idolatry and its appurtenances (Deut. 12:2-3)
325. Not to love the enticer to idolatry (Deut. 13:9)

326. Not to give up hating the enticer to idolatry (Deut. 13:9)
327. Not to save the enticer from capital punishment, but to stand by at his execution (Deut. 13:9)

328. A person whom he attempted to entice to idolatry shall not urge pleas for the acquittal of the enticer (Deut. 13:9)
329. A person whom he attempted to entice shall not refrain from giving evidence of the enticer's guilt, if he has such evidence (Deut. 13:9)

330. Not to swear by an idol to its worshipers, nor cause them to swear by it (Ex. 23:13)
331. Not to turn one's attention to idolatry (Lev. 19:4)
332. Not to adopt the institutions of idolaters nor their customs (Lev. 18:3; Lev. 20:23)

333. Not to pass a child through the fire to Molech (Lev. 18:21)

334. Not to suffer any one practicing witchcraft to live (Ex. 22:17)
335. Not to practice onein (observing times or seasons as favorable or unfavorable, using astrology) (Lev. 19:26)
336. Not to practice nachesh (doing things based on signs and portents; using charms and incantations) (Lev. 19:26)

337. Not to consult ovoth (ghosts) (Lev. 19:31)

338. Not to consult yid'onim (wizards) (Lev. 19:31)

339. Not to practice kisuf (magic using herbs, stones and objects that people use) (Deut. 18:10)
340. Not to practice kessem (a general term for magical practices) (Deut. 18:10)

341. Not to practice the art of a chover chaver (casting spells over snakes and scorpions) (Deut. 18:11)

342. Not to enquire of an ob (a ghost) (Deut. 18:11)

343. Not to seek the maytim (dead) (Deut. 18:11)

344. Not to enquire of a yid'oni (wizard) (Deut. 18:11)

345. Not to remove the entire beard, like the idolaters (Lev. 19:27)
346. Not to round the corners of the head, as the idolatrous priests do (Lev. 19:27)

347. Not to cut oneself or make incisions in one's flesh in grief, like the idolaters (Lev. 19:28; Deut. 14:1) .
348. Not to tattoo the body like the idolaters (Lev. 19:28)

349. Not to make a bald spot for the dead (Deut. 14:1)
350. Not to plant a tree for worship (Deut. 16:21) 351. Not to set up a pillar (for worship) (Deut. 16:22)
352. Not to show favor to idolaters (Deut. 7:2)
353. Not to make a covenant with the seven (Canaanite, idolatrous) nations (Ex. 23:32; Deut. 7:2)
354. Not to settle idolaters in our land (Ex. 23:33)

355. To slay the inhabitants of a city that has become idolatrous and burn that city (Deut. 13:16-17)

356. Not to rebuild a city that has been led astray to idolatry (Deut. 13:17)

357. Not to make use of the property of city that has been so led astray (Deut. 13:18)


Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

358. Not to cross-breed cattle of different species (Lev. 19:19) (according to the Talmud, this also applies to birds)

359. Not to sow different kinds of seed together in one field (Lev. 19:19) 360. Not to eat the fruit of a tree for three years from the time it was planted (Lev. 19:23)
361. That the fruit of fruit-bearing trees in the fourth year of their planting shall be sacred like the second tithe and eaten in Jerusalem (Lev. 19:24)

362. Not to sow grain or herbs in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

363. Not to eat the produce of diverse seeds sown in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

364. Not to work with beasts of different species, yoked together (Deut. 22:10)


Clothing

365. That a man shall not wear women's clothing (Deut. 22:5)
366. That a woman should not wear men's clothing (Deut. 22:5)
367. Not to wear garments made of wool and linen mixed together (Deut. 22:11)


The Firstborn

368. To redeem the firstborn human male (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20; Num. 18:15)
369. To redeem the firstling of an ass (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20)

370. To break the neck of the firstling of an ass if it is not redeemed (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20)

371. Not to redeem the firstling of a clean beast (Num. 18:17)


Priests and Levites

372. That the priests shall put on priestly vestments for the service (Ex. 28:2)
373. Not to tear the High priest's robe (Ex. 28:32)
374. That the priest shall not enter the Sanctuary at all times (i.e., at times when he is not performing service) (Lev. 16:2)

375. That the ordinary priest shall not defile himself by contact with any dead, other than immediate relatives (Lev. 21:1-3)

376. That the priests defile themselves for their deceased relatives (by attending their burial), and mourn for them like other Israelites, who are commanded to mourn for their relatives (Lev. 21:3)

377. That a priest who had an immersion during the day (to cleanse him from his uncleanness) shall not serve in the Sanctuary until after sunset (Lev. 21:6)

378. That a priest shall not marry a divorced woman (Lev. 21:7)

379. That a priest shall not marry a harlot (Lev. 21:7)
380. That a priest shall not marry a profaned woman (Lev. 21:7)
381. To show honor to a priest, and to give him precedence in all things that are holy (Lev. 21:8)

382. That a High priest shall not defile himself with any dead, even if they are relatives (Lev. 21:11)

383. That a High priest shall not go (under the same roof) with a dead body (Lev. 21:11)

384. That the High priest shall marry a virgin (Lev. 21:13)

385. That the High priest shall not marry a widow (Lev. 21:14)

386. That the High priest shall not cohabit with a widow, even without marriage, because he profanes her (Lev. 21:15)
387. That a person with a physical blemish shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Lev. 21:17)
388. That a priest with a temporary blemish shall not serve there (Lev. 21:21)

389. That a person with a physical blemish shall not enter the Sanctuary further than the altar (Lev. 21:23)

390. That a priest who is unclean shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Lev. 22:2-3)

391. To send the unclean out of the Camp of the Shechinah, that is, out of the Sanctuary (Num. 5:2)

392. That a priest who is unclean shall not enter the courtyard (Num. 5:2-3)

393. That the priests shall bless Israel (Num. 6:23)
394. To set apart a portion of the dough for the priest (Num. 15:20)
395. That the Levites shall not occupy themselves with the service that belongs to the priests, nor the priests with that belonging to the Levites (Num. 18:3)

396. That one not a descendant of Aaron in the male line shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Num. 18:4-7)

397. That the Levite shall serve in the Sanctuary (Num. 18:23)
398. To give the Levites cities to dwell in, these to serve also as cities of refuge (Num. 35:2)
399. That none of the tribe of Levi shall take any portion of territory in the land (of Israel) (Deut. 18:1)
400. That none of the tribe of Levi shall take any share of the spoil (at the conquest of the Promised Land) (Deut. 18:1)

401. That the priests shall serve in the Sanctuary in divisions, but on festivals, they all serve together (Deut. 18:6-8)


T'rumah, Tithes and Taxes

402. That an uncircumcised person shall not eat of the t'rumah (heave offering), and the same applies to other holy things. This rule is inferred from the law of the Paschal offering, by similarity of phrase (Ex. 12:44-45 and Lev. 22:10)
403. Not to alter the order of separating the t'rumah and the tithes; the separation be in the order first-fruits at the beginning, then the t'rumah, then the first tithe, and last the second tithe (Ex. 22:28)

404. To give half a shekel every year (to the Sanctuary for provision of the public sacrifices) (Ex. 30:13)

405. That a priest who is unclean shall not eat of the t'rumah (Lev. 22:3-4)

406. That a person who is not a priest or the wife or unmarried daughter of a priest shall not eat of the t'rumah (Lev. 22:10)

407. That a sojourner with a priest or his hired servant shall not eat of the t'rumah (Lev. 22:10)

408. Not to eat tevel (something from which the t'rumah and tithe have not yet been separated) (Lev. 22:15)

409. To set apart the tithe of the produce (one tenth of the produce after taking out t'rumah) for the Levites (Lev. 27:30; Num. 18:24) [not necessarily 'of the produce' or 'for the Levites' but some consider the tithe to be still legally binding; but the details given in other laws are dismissed]

410. To tithe cattle (Lev. 27:32)

411. Not to sell the tithe of the herd (Lev. 27:32-33)

412. That the Levites shall set apart a tenth of the tithes, which they had received from the Israelites, and give it to the priests (called the t'rumah of the tithe) (Num. 18:26)

413. Not to eat the second tithe of cereals outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)
414. Not to consume the second tithe of the vintage outside of Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)
415. Not to consume the second tithe of the oil outside of Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

416. Not to forsake the Levites (Deut. 12:19); but their gifts (dues) should be given to them, so that they might rejoice therewith on each and every festival
417. To set apart the second tithe in the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the sabbatical cycle to be eaten by its owner in Jerusalem (Deut. 14:22)

418. To set apart the second tithe in the third and sixth year of the sabbatical cycle for the poor (Deut. 14:28-29)

419. To give the priest the due portions of the carcass of cattle (Deut. 18:3)

420. To give the first of the fleece to the priest (Deut. 18:4)

421. To set apart t'rumah g'dolah (the great heave-offering, that is, a small portion of the grain, wine and oil) for the priest (Deut. 18:4)
422. Not to expend the proceeds of the second tithe on anything but food and drink (Deut. 26:14).

423. Not to eat the Second Tithe, even in Jerusalem, in a state of uncleanness, until the tithe had been redeemed (Deut. 26:14)

424. Not to eat the Second Tithe, when mourning (Deut. 26:14)

425. To make the declaration, when bringing the second tithe to the Sanctuary (Deut. 26:13)


The Temple, the Sanctuary and Sacred Objects

426. Not to build an altar of hewn stone (Ex. 20:22)
427. Not to mount the altar by steps (Ex. 20:23)

428. To build the Sanctuary (Ex. 25:8)
429. Not to remove the staves from the Ark (Ex. 25:15)
430. To set the showbread and the frankincense before the Lord every Sabbath (Ex. 25:30)

431. To kindle lights in the Sanctuary (Ex. 27:21)

432. That the breastplate shall not be loosened from the ephod (Ex. 28:28)

433. To offer up incense twice daily (Ex. 30:7)

434. Not to offer strange incense nor any sacrifice upon the golden altar (Ex. 30:9)

435. That the priest shall wash his hands and feet at the time of service (Ex. 30:19)

436. To prepare the oil of anointment and anoint high priests and kings with it (Ex. 30:31)
437. Not to compound oil for lay use after the formula of the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32-33)

438. Not to anoint a stranger with the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

439. Not to compound anything after the formula of the incense (Ex. 30:37)

440. That he who, in error, makes unlawful use of sacred things, shall make restitution of the value of his trespass and add a fifth (Lev. 5:16)

441. To remove the ashes from the altar (Lev. 6:3)

442. To keep fire always burning on the altar of the burnt-offering (Lev. 6:6)
443. Not to extinguish the fire on the altar (Lev. 6:6)

444. That a priest shall not enter the Sanctuary with disheveled hair (Lev. 10:6)

445. That a priest shall not enter the Sanctuary with torn garments (Lev. 10:6)

446. That the priest shall not leave the Courtyard of the Sanctuary, during service (Lev. 10:7)
447. That an intoxicated person shall not enter the Sanctuary nor give decisions in matters of the Law (Lev. 10:9-11)
448. To revere the Sanctuary (Lev. 19:30)
449. That when the Ark is carried, it should be carried on the shoulder (Num. 7:9)
450. To observe the second Passover (Num. 9:11)

451. To eat the flesh of the Paschal lamb on it, with unleavened bread and bitter herbs (Num. 9:11)
452. Not to leave any flesh of the Paschal lamb brought on the second Passover until the morning (Num. 9:12)

453. Not to break a bone of the Paschal lamb brought on the second Passover (Num. 9:12)
454. To sound the trumpets at the offering of sacrifices and in times of trouble (Num. 10:9-10)

455. To watch over the edifice continually (Num. 18:2)

456. Not to allow the Sanctuary to remain unwatched (Num. 18:5)
457. That an offering shall be brought by one who has in error committed a trespass against sacred things, or robbed, or lain carnally with a bond-maid betrothed to a man, or denied what was deposited with him and swore falsely to support his denial. This is called a guilt-offering for a known trespass
458. Not to destroy anything of the Sanctuary, of synagogues, or of houses of study, nor erase the holy names (of God); nor may sacred scriptures be destroyed (Deut. 12:2-4)


Sacrifices and Offerings

459. To sanctify the firstling of clean cattle and offer it up (Ex. 13:2; Deut. 15:19)
460. To slay the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:6)

461. To eat the flesh of the Paschal sacrifice on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan (Ex. 12:8)

462. Not to eat the flesh of the Paschal lamb raw or sodden (Ex. 12:9)

463. Not to leave any portion of the flesh of the Paschal sacrifice until the morning unconsumed (Ex. 12:10)

464. Not to give the flesh of the Paschal lamb to an Israelite who had become an apostate (Ex. 12:43)

465. Not to give flesh of the Paschal lamb to a stranger who lives among you to eat (Ex. 12:45)

466. Not to take any of the flesh of the Paschal lamb from the company's place of assembly (Ex. 12:46)

467. Not to break a bone of the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:46)

468. That the uncircumcised shall not eat of the flesh of the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:48)
469. Not to slaughter the Paschal lamb while there is [specified bread products] in the home (Ex. 23:18; Ex. 24:25)

470. Not to leave the part of the Paschal lamb that should be burnt on the altar until the morning, when it will no longer be fit to be burnt (Ex. 23:18; Ex. 24:25)

471. Not to go up to the Sanctuary for the festival without bringing an offering (Ex. 23:15)

472. To bring the first fruits to the Sanctuary (Ex. 23:19)

473. That the flesh of a sin-offering and guilt-offering shall be eaten (Ex. 29:33)

474. That one not of the seed of Aaron, shall not eat the flesh of the holy sacrifices (Ex. 29:33)
475. To observe the procedure of the burnt-offering (Lev. 1:3)

476. To observe the procedure of the meal-offering (Lev. 2:1)

477. Not to offer up leaven or honey (Lev. 2:11)

478. That every sacrifice be salted (Lev. 2:13)

479. Not to offer up any offering unsalted (Lev. 2:13)

480. That the Court of Judgment shall offer up a sacrifice if they have erred in a judicial pronouncement (Lev. 4:13)

481. That an individual shall bring a sin-offering if he has sinned in error by committing a transgression, the conscious violation of which is punished with excision (Lev. 4:27-28)

482. To offer a sacrifice of varying value in accordance with one's means (Lev. 5:7)

483. Not to sever completely the head of a fowl brought as a sin-offering (Lev. 5:8)

484. Not to put olive oil in a sin-offering made of flour (Lev. 5:11)

485. Not to put frankincense on a sin-offering made of flour (Lev. 5:11)

486. That an individual shall bring an offering if he is in doubt as to whether he has committed a sin for which one has to bring a sin-offering. This is called a guilt-offering for doubtful sins (Lev. 5:17-19)

487. That the remainder of the meal offerings shall be eaten (Lev. 6:9)
488. Not to allow the remainder of the meal offerings to become leavened (Lev. 6:10)

489. That the High priest shall offer a meal offering daily (Lev. 6:13)

490. Not to eat of the meal offering brought by the priests (Lev. 6:16)

491. To observe the procedure of the sin-offering (Lev. 6:18)
492. Not to eat of the flesh of sin offerings, the blood of which is brought within the Sanctuary and sprinkled towards the Veil (Lev. 6:23)
493. To observe the procedure of the guilt-offering (Lev. 7:1)

494. To observe the procedure of the peace-offering (Lev. 7:11)

495. To burn meat of the holy sacrifice that has remained over (Lev. 7:17)

496. Not to eat of sacrifices that are eaten beyond the appointed time for eating them (Lev. 7:18)

497. Not to eat of holy things that have become unclean (Lev. 7:19)

498. To burn meat of the holy sacrifice that has become unclean (Lev. 7:19)

499. That a person who is unclean shall not eat of things that are holy (Lev. 7:20)

500. A priest's daughter who profaned herself shall not eat of the holy things, neither of the heave offering nor of the breast, nor of the shoulder of peace offerings (Lev. 10:14, Lev. 22:12)
501. That a woman after childbirth shall bring an offering when she is clean (Lev. 12:6)

502. That the leper shall bring a sacrifice after he is cleansed (Lev. 14:10)

503. That a man having an issue shall bring a sacrifice after he is cleansed of his issue (Lev. 15:13-15)

504. That a woman having an issue shall bring a sacrifice after she is cleansed of her issue (Lev. 15:28-30)
505. To observe, on the Day of Atonement, the service appointed for that day, regarding the sacrifice, confessions, sending away of the scapegoat, etc. (Lev. 16:3-34)

506. Not to slaughter beasts set apart for sacrifices outside (the Sanctuary) (Lev. 17:3-4)

507. Not to eat flesh of a sacrifice that has been left over (beyond the time appointed for its consumption) (Lev. 19:8)

508. Not to sanctify blemished cattle for sacrifice on the altar (Lev. 22:20)

509. That every animal offered up shall be without blemish (Lev. 22:21)
510. Not to inflict a blemish on cattle set apart for sacrifice (Lev. 22:21)

511. Not to slaughter blemished cattle as sacrifices (Lev. 22:22)

512. Not to burn the limbs of blemished cattle upon the altar (Lev. 22:22)

513. Not to sprinkle the blood of blemished cattle upon the altar (Lev. 22:24)

514. Not to offer up a blemished beast that comes from non-Israelites (Lev. 22:25)

515. That sacrifices of cattle can only take place when they are at least eight days old (Lev. 22:27)

516. Not to leave any flesh of the thanksgiving offering until the morning (Lev. 22:30)

517. To offer up the meal-offering of the Omer on the morrow after the first day of Passover, together with one lamb (Lev. 23:10)

518. Not to eat bread made of new grain before the Omer of barley has been offered up on the second day of Passover (Lev. 23:14)

519. Not to eat roasted grain of the new produce before that time (Lev. 23:14)

520. Not to eat fresh ears of the new grain before that time (Lev. 23:14)

521. To bring on the Festival of Weeks loaves of bread together with the sacrifices which are then offered up in connection with the loaves (Lev. 23:17-20)

522. To offer up an additional sacrifice on Passover (Lev. 23:36)

523. That one who vows to the Lord the monetary value of a person shall pay the amount appointed in the Scriptural portion (Lev. 27:2-8)

524. If a beast is exchanged for one that had been set apart as an offering, both become sacred (Lev. 27:10)

525. Not to exchange a beast set aside for sacrifice (Lev. 27:10)

526. That one who vows to the Lord the monetary value of an unclean beast shall pay its value (Lev. 27:11-13)
527. That one who vows the value of his house shall pay according to the appraisal of the priest (Lev. 27:11-13)

528. That one who sanctifies to the Lord a portion of his field shall pay according to the estimation appointed in the Scriptural portion (Lev. 27:16-24)

529. Not to transfer a beast set apart for sacrifice from one class of sacrifices to another (Lev. 27:26)

530. To decide in regard to dedicated property as to which is sacred to the Lord and which belongs to the priest (Lev. 27:28)

531. Not to sell a field devoted to the Lord (Lev. 27:28)

532. Not to redeem a field devoted to the Lord (Lev. 27:28)

533. To make confession before the Lord of any sin that one has committed, when bringing a sacrifice and at other times (Num. 5:6-7)
534. Not to put olive oil in the meal-offering of a woman suspected of adultery (Num. 5:15)
535. Not to put frankincense on it (Num. 5:15)

536. To offer up the regular sacrifices daily (two lambs as burnt offerings) (Num. 28:3)

537. To offer up an additional sacrifice every Sabbath (two lambs) (Num. 28:9)

538. To offer up an additional sacrifice every New Moon (Num. 28:11)

539. To bring an additional offering on the Festival of Weeks (Num. 28:26-27)

540. To offer up an additional sacrifice on the Jewish New Year (Num. 29:1-6)

541. To offer up an additional sacrifice on the Day of Atonement (Num. 29:7-8)

542. To offer up an additional sacrifice on the Feast of Tabernacles (Num. 29:12-34)

543. To offer up an additional offering on Shemini Atzeret, which is a festival by itself (Num. 29:35-38)
544. To bring all offerings, whether obligatory or freewill, on the first festival after these were incurred (Deut. 12:5-6)

545. Not to offer up sacrifices outside (the Sanctuary) (Deut. 12:13)

546. To offer all sacrifices in the Sanctuary (Deut. 12:14)

547. To redeem cattle set apart for sacrifices that contracted disqualifying blemishes, after which they may be eaten by anyone. (Deut. 12:15)

548. Not to eat of the unblemished firstling outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

549. Not to eat the flesh of the burnt-offering (Deut. 12:17). This is a Prohibition applying to every trespasser, not to enjoy any of the holy things. If he does so, he commits a trespass
550. That the priests shall not eat the flesh of the sin-offering or guilt-offering outside the Courtyard (of the Sanctuary) (Deut. 12:17)

551. Not to eat of the flesh of the sacrifices that are holy in a minor degree, before the blood has been sprinkled (on the altar), (Deut. 12:17)

552. That the priest shall not eat the first-fruits before they are set down in the Courtyard (of the Sanctuary) (Deut. 12:17)

553. To take trouble to bring sacrifices to the Sanctuary from places outside the land of Israel (Deut. 12:26)

554. Not to eat the flesh of beasts set apart as sacrifices, that have been rendered unfit to be offered up by deliberately inflicted blemish (Deut. 14:3)

555. Not to do work with cattle set apart for sacrifice (Deut. 15:19)
556. Not to shear beasts set apart for sacrifice (Deut. 15:19)

557. Not to leave any portion of the festival offering brought on the fourteenth of Nissan unto the third day (Deut. 16:4)
558. Not to offer up a beast that has a temporary blemish (Deut. 17:1)

559. Not to bring sacrifices out of the hire of a harlot or price of a dog (apparently a euphemism for sodomy) (Deut. 23:19)

560. To read the portion prescribed on bringing the first fruits (Deut. 26:5-10)

Ritual Purity and Impurity

561. That eight species of creeping things defile by contact (Lev. 11:29-30)

562. That foods become defiled by contact with unclean things (Lev. 11:34)

563. That anyone who touches the carcass of a beast that died of itself shall be unclean (Lev. 11:39)

564. That a lying-in woman is unclean like a menstruating woman (in terms of uncleanness) (Lev. 12:2-5)

565. That a leper is unclean and defiles (Lev. 13:2-46)
566. That the leper shall be universally recognized as such by the prescribed marks. So too, all other unclean persons should declare themselves as such (Lev. 13:45)

567. That a leprous garment is unclean and defiles (Lev. 13:47-49)

568. That a leprous house defiles (Lev. 14:34-46)

569. That a man, having a running issue, defiles (Lev. 15:1-15)
570. That the seed of copulation defiles (Lev. 15:16)

571. That purification from all kinds of defilement shall be effected by immersion in the waters of a mikvah (Lev. 15:16)

572. That a menstruating woman is unclean and defiles others (Lev. 15:19-24)

573. That a woman, having a running issue, defiles (Lev. 15:25-27)

574. To carry out the ordinance of the Red Heifer so that its ashes will always be available (Num. 19:9)

575. That a corpse defiles (Num. 19:11-16)

576. That the waters of separation defile one who is clean, and cleanse the unclean from pollution by a dead body (Num. 19:19-22)

Lepers and Leprosy

577. Not to drove off the hair of the scall (Lev. 13:33)
578. That the procedure of cleansing leprosy, whether of a man or of a house, takes place with cedar-wood, hyssop, scarlet thread, two birds, and running water (Lev. 14:1-7)

579. That the leper shall shave all his hair (Lev. 14:9)

580. Not to pluck out the marks of leprosy (Deut. 24:8)


The King

581. Not to curse a ruler, that is, the King or the head of the College in the land of Israel (Ex. 22:27)
582. To appoint a king (Deut. 17:15)

583. Not to appoint as ruler over Israel, one who comes from non-Israelites (Deut. 17:15)

584. That the King shall not acquire an excessive number of horses (Deut. 17:16)

585. That the King shall not take an excessive number of wives (Deut. 17:17)

586. That he shall not accumulate an excessive quantity of gold and silver (Deut. 17:17)

587. That the King shall write a scroll of the Torah for himself, in addition to the one that every person should write, so that he writes two scrolls (Deut. 17:18)


Nazarites

588. That a Nazarite shall not drink wine, or anything mixed with wine which tastes like wine; and even if the wine or the mixture has turned sour, it is prohibited to him (Num. 6:3)
589. That he shall not eat fresh grapes (Num. 6:3)

590. That he shall not eat dried grapes (raisins) (Num. 6:3)
591. That he shall not eat the kernels of the grapes (Num. 6:4)

592. That he shall not eat of the skins of the grapes (Num. 6:4)

593. That the Nazarite shall permit his hair to grow (Num. 6:5)

594. That the Nazarite shall not cut his hair (Num. 6:5)

595. That he shall not enter any covered structure where there is a dead body (Num. 6:6)

596. That a Nazarite shall not defile himself for any dead person (by being in the presence of the corpse) (Num. 6:7)
597. That the Nazarite shall shave his hair when he brings his offerings at the completion of the period of his Nazariteship, or within that period if he has become defiled (Num. 6:9) .


Wars

598. That those engaged in warfare shall not fear their enemies nor be panic-stricken by them during battle (Deut. 3:22, 7:21, 20:3)
599. To anoint a special priest (to speak to the soldiers) in a war (Deut. 20:2)
600. In a permissive war (as distinguished from obligatory ones), to observe the procedure prescribed in the Torah (Deut. 20:10)
601. Not to keep alive any individual of the seven Canaanite nations (Deut. 20:16)

602. To exterminate the seven Canaanite nations from the land of Israel (Deut. 20:17)
603. Not to destroy fruit trees (wantonly or in warfare) (Deut. 20:19-20)

604. To deal with a beautiful woman taken captive in war in the manner prescribed in the Torah (Deut. 21:10-14)

605. Not to sell a beautiful woman, (taken captive in war) (Deut. 21:14)

606. Not to degrade a beautiful woman (taken captive in war) to the condition of a bondwoman (Deut. 21:14)

607. Not to offer peace to the Ammonites and the Moabites before waging war on them, as should be done to other nations (Deut. 23:7)
608. That anyone who is unclean shall not enter the Camp of the Levites (Deut. 23:11)

609. To have a place outside the camp for sanitary purposes (Deut. 23:13)

610. To keep that place sanitary (Deut. 23:14-15)

611. Always to remember what Amalek did (Deut. 25:17)

612. That the evil done to us by Amalek shall not be forgotten (Deut. 25:19)

613. To destroy the seed of Amalek (Deut. 25:19)

6 comments:

Marcus G said...

I don't read this site for a few days and you go crazy!

I'm thinking "see, wood, trees".

Jesus says (and this bit's in red in my Bible) that he came not to abolish the Law but to fulfil it.

Sometimes, not understanding the Scripture should give rise to humility, not just getting out the scissors and cutting out the bits we don't get. I love the Billy Graham story of how as a young man he wrestled with the Bible till one day he opened it up and said something like "I don't understand all this, but it is going to be my judge, not the other way around". And the next thing he did was the Crusade that began his ministry.

I feel nervous at saying (in effect) that 69% of the cross (where Jesus fulfils the Law) doesn't need to apply to me. I may not comprehend it all, but I want it all - I don't want one bit of the cross not to apply to me.

I just think you aren't quite getting what God wants you to see here, but I love that you are trying to see something. If I had the time I would do for all 613 laws what I did for the 10 Commandments a few days ago: they all point us to Jesus, to the cross. My suspicion is that finding out how is ultimately going to make you spiritually stronger than just ignoring what God in his wisdom has placed before us.

Ricky Carvel said...

Believe it or not, I'm not advocating 'getting out the scissors and cutting out the bits that we don't get', I'm trying to figure out how to relate to the law. Because I do see (and it comes to the fore in the ongoing homosexual debate) Christians who clearly don't abide by some of the 613 laws, insisting that others' behaviour is sinful because they don't abide by some other of the 613.

Some folk say that they live by the 'Sprit of the law' not by 'the letter of the law' but what on earth does that actually mean?

Jesus summarises the entire law by saying (a) Love God, and (b) Love your Neighbour. But what if your neighbour is an Amalekite? The Law (see #613 above) requires their destruction.

If there are some individual laws (like that one) that you simply can't use as a guide in life today, then how can you use any of them?

The 'spirit' of that law is totally at odds with the 'spirit' of the law.

With regard to Jesus 'fulfilling' the law, that kind of sounds much like the 'obsolete' thing to my ears, I'm afraid. By fulfilling the law, Jesus does away for the need for those of us who follow Him to continue to follow it. We now have the real thing, we don't need the pale reflection.

We need 100% of the cross, but that takes away our burden to have to follow 100% of the law.

Being free from sin (not free to sin!) makes us free from the law.

Does it not?

That's why I get really annoyed by programmes like that 'Make me a Christian' which says: "If you want to live like a Christian, here are the rules", when really the message is "If you want to live like a Christian, here's a new, clean heart, now go and start loving others with it..."

Marcus G said...

OK.

I think it's not the "spirit" of the Law, so much as the "point" of the Law that matters.

St Paul in Romans says "But now, a righteousness apart from the Law has been revealed" but he goes on to say that the Law pointed to it. He writes that if you want to live by Law you have to live by the whole of it - and he means that if you want to live with God (ie have that righteousness, that right relationship) and do it through the law - you have to fulfill the whole Law. He doesn't write this to say it can't be done - but that it has been done, so that now we don't have to do it - we get the righteousness that comes from that life as a gift through faith.

It's not the spirit but the point: the point is righteousness, right relationship with God. The point applies to us. Jesus kept the detail so that the point applies to us; but the fulfilling of the detail doesn't abolish it -

Rather it makes us go back and learn what we need to do to live in the fulness of the relationship that has been granted to us.

Kill Amalekites? There are many things here, but let's have 2 for starters: the point is that they worshipped other Gods. That's the heart of sin and the breaking of the relationship. We should ensure in our lives that we "put to death" those things that break the relationship, that tear us from worshipping (loving) God and carrying his love into the world, and yes I'm using the phrase metaphorically though the commandment is given literally. The death was on the cross; now we are to live; the judge is Jesus and the greater command is to value all human life, so I have no problem in working this way - to not do so is to not take the Scriptures seriously enough.

The other idea within this commandment is: obedience. we do not kill the Amalekite in our borders, those things that compromise our life with God, because (like the Amalekites) they are clever and they get us to compromise. But that way lies damaged faith and blocked communion with the Lover of our souls. Obedience sometimes sounds strange; it is, however, one of the pearls of holiness.

As for your final paragraph - Amen and Amen. But what does it mean to love? Jesus has that handy 2-fold summary, St Paul throws in 1 Corinthians 13, but to love God and neighbour is what a right relationship with God (righteousness) is all about - and that's the point of the law, that's what Jesus fulfilled, that's what I can't do by myself without him, and that's why I think we should work with what God has given us, especially when it's hard.

If it was good enough for Jesus...

And yes, I am enjoying our conversation!

Ricky Carvel said...

Glad you're enjoying the conversation ;o)

Its interesting the way you approach the Amalekite issue, because you essentially are approaching 'the Law' in the way that I suggested in my original post about this, where I said:

"In general terms, I see the same in the Old Covenant laws. There are a great many principles that the people of God need to internalise, but once we have - once they're written on our hearts - then we no longer need the laws, many of which draw lines in the sand that do not correlate to 'special' or 'magical' standards."

The line in the sand relating to killing Amalekites no longer applies, but the principle of not letting anything or anyone seduce you away from God - and using extreme measures to enforce this - does remain. You have internalised the principle. Heart of love rather than rules.

The whole point of this run of blog posts was not really to say 'the Law is pointless' or any such thing, but to try and get my head around (a) how to live right, and (b) how to deal with 'legalaist' attitudes amongst Christians.

It was, of course, the homosexual question that provoked this line of thought. The reactions against homosexual clergy have been largely legalist. But if you're not going to approach the issue from the legalist side, how do you actually approach it at all? If internalising the principle of killing Amalekites leads to a righteous lifestyle pattern that doesn't kill anyone, including Amalekites, is it possible that internalising the principle of Leviticus 18v22 could lead to a righteous lifestyle that includes the possibility of homosexual marriage? (Not 'blessing of union' or anything such, if the only permitted (legalist!) place for hetero sex is in a committed marriage, then if there is any permitted place for homo sex, then it would have to be within an equally committed marriage relationship.)

Still a tricky issue...

Marcus G said...

And so we get to the heart of the issue.

Ethics is such hard work.

First - this isn't the only place the Scriptures tackle the subject of homosexuality; but yes, from here, I'm going to tend towards a reading that focusses on the point of the law, not the detail.

At university I had a friend on CU exec who was constantly saying "the Bible doesn't allow that" or some such phrase. He made me want to throw my Bible away.

Me. Who loves my Bible more than I can say. And this made me realise that he was abusing the Scriptures. To make me even think that thought was to so abuse the Scriptures and to so mistreat and reduce them to something less than they are, that I eventually understood it was not the bible I wanted to throw away -

It was his system of reading it. Where in Christ all God's promises are NO!!!!

I abhor such legalism as utterly unbiblical. Utterly un-Christlike. And the Scriptures judge me, not the other way around, in everything I do, but they are words of life not death and anyone who doesn't get that doesn't get the God who is their ultimate author.

So -

Don't throw out the Law cos you are throwing out legalism. It's not the same thing! Legalism - bad; Law - good. And working that out - complex, but wonderfully rich!

See, this is a great conversation.

And what is my complete Biblical view on the gay issue? Too long and complex for a comment here. Sorry. Ethics is like that, too.

Ricky Carvel said...

Actually, the homosexuality issue isn't - for me - the heart of the issue. Its just the main divisive and controversial issue in the church today. I am genuinely more interested in the correct way to use 'the law' in all general issues, rather than just this specific one.

OK, I do have opinions on the issue (mostly expressed here before) but actually my main point is the general legalism one, not the specific sex one.

Ethics are hard work. We need to wrestle with the issues, not merely point to Leviticus and say "well that settles that..."

But I've come across a few instances recently of people using phrases like 'the scriptures judge me' and am still not sure about that. Surely it is the author, not the book that is the judge? I think that makes a big difference.